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Asteroid collision and the extinction of the dinosaurs

You may have seen science fiction films about the possibility of a collision between an asteroid and the Earth. Well this is not just science fiction it could be science fact!

The total number of asteroids is probably over 70 000 and more are discovered every year.

The asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter and is between 1.5 and 3.5 AU (225 million to 525 million km) from the Earth at its closest.

Some of the asteroids in the main asteroid belt are very large, Ceres being almost 1000 km in diameter, but few are this big and mostly they have diameters of less than ten kilometres.

The Barringer meteor crater in Arizona is about one and a half kilometres in diameter and was formed by a meteorite with a diameter of only 50m but the energy produced was equivalent to a 20-megaton bomb! Imagine the devastation if the Earth was hit by a small asteroid only 2 km across moving at speed of only 50 m/s. The energy that would be released can be calculated to be about 4 000 000 Megatons!

It is almost impossible to imagine what effect such a colossal impact might have.

Firstly as the asteroid fell through the Earth's atmosphere a huge amount of heat would be generated by friction but it is when it hit the ground that the really catastrophic effects would begin.

First there would be a huge crater (estimated to have a diameter of 45 km and a depth of almost 1 km) and from this millions of tons of dust would be thrown up into the atmosphere to form a dense cloud. Some of this would fall back into the crater but an estimated 50 km3 would enter the atmosphere.

If the crater had been formed in sedimentary rock (density 2500 kg/m3) this would mean that some 10 billion tons of dust would be thrown into the air. It would be an extreme version of the dust clouds formed by the eruptions of Mount St Helens and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines (see following photos).
(Both photographs Credit: David Harlow, USGS. Department of the Interior/USGS, U.S.)

The United States Geological Survey has some other very good photographs on their website at:

The dust cloud formed by such an asteroid impact would mean that the amount of sunshine reaching the Earth's surface would be much less and the temperature of the planet would fall.

As a result life forms as we know them would cease to exist and this is maybe what caused the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous Period.

On June 30, 1908 just after quarter past seven in the morning there was a mysterious explosion in the skies over Tunguska in Siberia. It was caused by the impact and break-up of a large meteorite, roughly six kilometres up in the atmosphere. Recent scientific studies have estimated that the Tunguska event may have been caused by the explosion of a stony meteorite about 30 meters in diameter travelling at about 15 km/s.

But how likely is it that there will be another asteroid impact? The chances of an impact with a large asteroid are very very small but astronomers keep a watch on the skies for any possible future problems. It is believed that the asteroid Apophis may pass very close to the Earth in 2036 and studies are being made of its orbit at present.

A very useful web site for calculating the effects of an asteroid impact is:

© Keith Gibbs 2020