Physicists and astronomers
He first mentioned the preparation of gunpowder in a book published in 1248
or 1249. However it was probably discovered by the Chinese. He lectured in Paris but
returned to England where he became a Franciscan friar. Pioneer in optics.
Bainbridge, Kenneth Tompkins
American physicist. Born in New York.
Development of the mass spectrometer.Baird, John
Scottish inventor. Developed the television (1926).
Balmer, Johann Jacob
A Swiss school teacher, he devised a formula to predict
the wavelengths of a series of lines in the spectrum of hydrogen
Becquerel, Antoine Henri
French physicist. He investigated fluorescence
crystals to see if they produced X rays and this led to his early work on radioactivity. He was
awarded the Nobel Prize in 1903 for discovering radioactivity. Study of
phosphorescence. Bell, Alexander Graham
engineer. Patented the telephone in 1876. Bell-Burnell,
British astronomer. Pulsars Bernoulli,
A Swiss mathematician who explained much of the theory of Fluid flow.
Proposed some of the basic ideas of the kinetic theory of gases (1738).
Bethe, Hans Albrecht
German physicist. Fundamental work on the energy
production in stars. Nobel Prize for this work in 1967. Black,
British chemist and physicist. Fluid theory of heat. Worked on the idea
of specific heat capacity. Introduced the distinction between temperature and the
'quantity of heat'.Blackett, Patrick M.S.
Studied cosmic radiation. First to photograph a nuclear transmutation. Discovered the
positron independently of Anderson. Bohr, Niels
the atom. Energy level structure. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for this work in 1922.
Explained the process of nuclear fission.
Austrian physicist. Developed statistical mechanics and applied it to the
kinetic theory of gases and thermodynamics. Boltzmann's constant. Distribution of molecular
speeds in a gas.
Bengali physicist and mathematician. In his work on quantum mechanics he laid the foundation for the development of Bose-Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Published papers on the electromagnetic properties of the ionosphere, X ray crystallography, thermoluminescence and unified field theory.
Irish scientist and
philosopher. Proved that air has weight. Study of the behaviour of gases. Boyle's Law –
published 1663. Boys, Sir Charles Vernon
Laboratory measurement of the Universal Constant of Gravitation
British astronomer. Used the aberration of starlight to estimate
the speed of light in 1728. Discovered the wobbling of the Earth's axis
(nutation). Bragg, Sir William Henry
British physicist. With
his son (Sir Lawrence) he developed the X ray spectrometer and worked on crystal
structure. Bramah, Joseph
British engineer. Invented the
hydraulic press Brewster, Sir David
Worked on optics, especially polarisation. Brewster's Law. Bunsen,
Professor at Heidelberg University for thirty seven years.
Collaborated with Kirchoff to develop spectrum analysis. He discovered rubidium and
caesium. Invented the Bunsen burner, grease spot photometer and the filter