Spark image

Waves in tubes - molecular vibrations

The animation shows the vibrations of the molecules of air in a tube in its fundamental mode.There is an anitinode (maximum amplitude) at the open ebnd of the tube and a node (no vibration) at the closed end. The wavelength of the sound produced is four times the length of the tube.

 
 
 
© Keith Gibbs/John Bourne 2013